PI studies

Selected documents (analyses, studies, papers) of „Parliamentary research services“ from V4 countries.

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Study_2.114_The Budget Bill 2020 - basic parameters
The study provides a summary and analysis of the most important parameters of the State Budget Bill for 2020. The first part is devoted to a summary of the basic parameters, government spending priorities and expenditure framework. The study also presents macroeconomic forecast on which revenue estimates in the draft budget are based on. The text also deals with the development of debt, deficit and related fiscal targets of the government. The main part of the study focuses on analysis of revenues and expenditures of the draft state budget for 2020 e.g. in comparison with the approved budget for 2019 or analysis of the expenditures of individual budget chapters.
state budget chapters, ministry,economic developmnent, prediction, defiicit, debt, expenditure revenues, capital expenditure 10.10.2019 cz Document
Study_2.113_Performance budgeting
The study deals with performance budgeting that represents budgeting focused on results. Performance budgeting can be described as a mechanism that links funding to measurable results, and systematically use performance information to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public finances. Elements of performance budgeting and performance management have been implemented since the middle of the 20th century; however, PB gained more attention after the last economic crises when governments needed to focus on savings. PB is one of the principles of OECD good budgetary governance. Austria introduced performance budgeting as a part of a major reform of the budgetary process in 2009 and 2013. As part of the reform, the Parliamentary Budget Office (PBO) has been set up at parliamentary level in order to strengthen budgetary expertise to be able to help MPs in exercising their budgetary oversight function. Estonia is currently introducing PB within the framework of broader strategic planning reform. The Netherlands as well as Sweden are countries that had introduced PB in the last century and are constantly developing and modifying its budgeting system based on ex post evaluations of already introduces tools. On the contrary, Ireland introduced PB as a reaction to the recent economic crises. In Slovakia, ex post spending reviews are carried out by the Value for Money Unit at the Ministry of Finance.
performance budgeting, performance-based budgeting, performance indicators, performance of inforamtion accoungable 10.08.2019 cz Document
Study_5.388_Comparison of selected authorities regulating audiovisual media in the EU
Due to the changing media environment, whose change is connected mainly with digitization and the opportunities offered by new technologies, it is observed a trend of so-called convergence in the regulatory environment. The trend of convergence consists in connecting previously separated agendas, which due to changes becomes to be more inter-related, under the administration of one authority. In the case of converged authorities, they cover different areas ranging from telecommunications, transport, new technologies to media regulation. This paper offers an overview of selected regulatory authorities in the EU and their agendas ranging from authorities where several agendas were converged under one authority to the traditional model where authorities specialize only in the field of media. The paper presents basic information about the legal regulation of regulatory authorities by the European Union and the Council of Europe. Furthermore, the paper provide comparison of the extent of competence of selected regulatory authorities and ways of dealing with personnel issues (selection of persons to bodies of regulatory authority, duration of their mandate, methods of dismissal). The paper presents a basic description of the functioning of authorities, compares whether authorities grant licenses for radio and television broadcasting or if authorities control content in terms of principles of objectivity and plurality of broadcasting.
media; regulation; TV; radio; broadcasting 10.10.2019 cz Document
Study_1.244_Publication of Judgments - Regulation and Practice in EU Member States
This paper deals with the basic rules for the publication of court decisions in the EU countries. Anonymization of court decisions forms the part of the paper. Conclusion is that most countries recently reconstructed the praxis of publication of courts cases. However, the legislation is fragmented. Some states do not regulate the publication obligation at all or only regulate it fragmentarily. The highest courts and constitutional courts of most of the countries publish all cases in full version. Anonymization of participants do most of the countries. The anonymization of judges and public officials is obligatory only in the limited number of countries. Written collections have lost any importance, although in some cases the legislation requires them and continues to publish them.
court decisions, publication, anonymization, cases, databases 10.09.2019 cz Document
Selected Topic_04/2019_BAC tolerance compared to drivers, penalties and obligatory safety measures
A comparison of the maximum possible blood alcohol content (BAC) for cyclists suggests that most European countries tolerate the consumption of alcohol by cyclists, provided that they are able to drive safely. Otherwise, cyclists are subject to sanctions that vary from one country to another (fine, imprisonment, non-motorized vehicle driving ban, driving license withdrawal, points withdrawal). Mandatory safety bicycle equipment in all countries under comparison include bicycle lighting. Some countries also require a bell, reflectors, brakes, lock, reflective vest and protective helmet.
driver, alcohol, cyclist, tollerance 10.10.2019 cz Document
Study_5.378_Collective legal protection in selected EU member states
collective legal protection,consumer protection,compensatory damages,dilatory action, representative action, collective action 10.02.2019 cz Document
Study_5.385_The constitutional and legal basis of the right to conduct a business in Vietnam in 2019
Right to do business in Vietnam is not supported by the constitution. The right is only partially admitted by the constitutional text. Its development is mainly ensured by the Civil Code, the Companies Act and the Investment Act. The thesis contains principles of the legal regulation and new upcoming legal regulation of the right to do business.
Constitutional Law; business; Vietnam 10.08.2019 cz Document
Study_5.386_EU Copyright Reform - The second Copyright Package
This study discusses the so-called second copyright package that was introduced by the Commission on 14 September 2016. The study comprises of a brief description of this legislative package and a more in-depth analysis of the directive on copyright and related rights in the Digital Single Market. This directive was adopted on 17 April 2019 and was a much-discussed part of the second copyright package. Special attention is paid to two specific provisions of the proposal for a directive on copyright in the Digital Single Market. The first provision concerns a proposal to newly establish an exclusive right related to copyright for press publishers while the second provision deals with a proposal to establish some new requirements for online content-sharing services providers. These two provisions were often considered contentious by experts during the deliberations on the proposal for a directive on copyright in the Digital Single Market.
Copyright; information society services; content sharing platforms; publishers rights 10.07.2019 cz Document
Study_5.387_Conflict of interest and its solution through a blind trust or similar institute
Blind trust is one of the solutions used for mitigation of the imminent conflict of interest of individuals who, by taking steps in management positions, typically in politics or public administration, could benefit their private business or investment. The blind trust serves to break the public official's control over his activities or investments, while significantly reducing the inflow of information to the public official about his business or investment during the exercise of the mandate. This comparative study aims to shed light on the principle of blind trust as an institute for the prevention of conflicts of interest and the limits of its use to fulfil this aim. The work focuses both on the regulation of the blind trust itself and on the regulation used in some EU Member States, which do regulate the blind trust, nevertheless the legislation serves to similar purposes.
Conflict of interest, trust fund 10.09.2019 cz Document
Selected Topic_03/2019_Preventive measures against the overpopulation of cats, protection of cats and dogs from illegal breeding and reproduction
The study deals with the issue of effective legal regulation control of cats and dogs populations and compares the existing legal approaches of selected EU Member States with the proposed legislative changes in the Czech Republic. The aim of these legislative changes is to prevent illegal practices in the area of reproduction and trafficking of cats and dogs. The study describes a framework strategy towards a unified approach in neutering of cats and towards a single register of cats and dogs in the EU.
sterilization, cats, overgrowth, castration, chipping, identification, registration 10.09.2019 cz Document
Selected Topic_02/2019_Protection of Creditors in Czech and German Succession Proceedings
nheritance proceedings; creditor protection; Czech Republic; Germany 10.08.2019 cz Document
Study_5.384_Affordable housing in Europe
This comparative study represents a compilation of several studies of the Parliamentary institute on housing policy. The study compares the concepts of affordable housing in eight European countries (France, Finland, the Netherlands, Slovakia, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany and Sweden). The study seeks to demonstrate a wide scope of social housing systems, ranging from affordable housing targeted on large scales of population (the Netherlands, Austria) to narrower social housing models (UK, Slovakia). The study focuses on social housing in a broad context, comprising financing of social housing, rent regulation and housing benefits. In addition, the study focuses on selected countries employing specific measures (either on national or on municipal level) to tackle the housing crisis issues present due to urbanization and other trends in many European cities. The study deals with following issues quotas on building affordable housing in big German and Austrian cities, planning obligations for developers in the UK, the tax on empty houses (the UK, France) and other measures applied in order to prevent "the phenomenon of empty apartments" and to motivate owners to return the apartments on the market (Netherlands, Germany, France). All this should give to a reader a comprehensive overview of housing situation in monitored countries.
Social housing, affordable housing, rent regulation, housing allowances, subsidies, housing policy, land development contracts, developers, empty flat tax, real estate tax 10.05.2019 cz Document
Study_2.111_Draft State Budget Act for 2018 - basic parameters
The study analyses the most important data contained in the State final account for 2018. The first part of the study summarizes the economic development in the Czech Republic, Europe and the global economy in 2018. The second part of the study describes and compares basic parameters and results of the state finances management in 2018. The core of the study is devoted to the analysis of revenues and expenditures of the state budget in 2018, both in comparison to the approved budget and to the results of the State final account in 2017.
state budget; state final account; revenues; expenditure; current expenditure; capital expenditure 10.05.2019 cz Document
Study_2.112_Sectoral taxation (in economic theory and practice)
The study deals with the issue of sectoral taxation. It begins with a short executive summary. The first part of the study is devoted to the sectoral taxation in economic theory. Sectoral taxation as such is not defined in the professional literature. The study therefore explains how the tax burden shifts depending on different supply and demand elasticity and in monopoly conditions. The second part of the study provides an overview of the approaches of selected EU countries to sectoral taxation. Currently, the most widespread form of sectoral tax is the banking tax, which, however, has more forms. In most cases, a tax/levy/charge is applied to create a special fund for helping failing banks. Another established type of sectoral tax is telecommunication tax, energy sector tax or a financial transaction tax. Nowadays, Hungary is a pioneer in sectoral taxation within the EU.
Sector taxes; bank tax; telecommunications tax; energy sector taxation; shifting the tax burden; tax on financial transactions 10.05.2019 cz Document
Study_1.243_The Petition Right and status of Petiton Laws in selected countries EU
The petiton right is a fundamental constitutional right. The petition is a request from citizens to resolve a matter of public interest. Legislation in the EU MS is either general (for all authorities), or for parliamentary petitions only. Recently there has been a renaissance of this right with regard to electronic submissions. The parliamentary procedure varies in detail in the groups parliaments. The work contains the texts of the laws in the original.
petition 10.02.2019 cz Document
Selected Topic_01/2019 Political Groups in European Parliament in Parliamentary Therms 2014 - 2019
In the European Parliament, its members organise themselves in political groups (fractions) based on their political views. The structure of these political groups is similar to the structure of parties and their parliamentary groups on the national level. They elect a president (two presidents, in some cases) and vice-presidents. Political groups in the European Parliament have to be distinguished from so-called European political parties. This study consists of two main parts. First, it describes the purpose and functioning of political groups in the light of the Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament and the status of European political parties and European political foundations. In the second part, the study contains a basic description of individual political groups in the European Parliament (2014-2019).
Fractiion, political party, European Parliament 10.04.2019 cz Document
Study_4.027_Climate Change and the Energy Union (recent development by the end of 2018)
This paper consists of two parts. Part one is focused on news in international climate change law and policy. This part deals with IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emissions pathways from October 2018 and with the 24th Conference of the Parties to the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP24) which was held in 2018 in Katowice, Poland. Part two of this text analyzes the Energy Union. In 2018 have been agreed important legislative acts setting the climate change targets for the EU for 2030 (renewable energy target and energy efficiency target accompanying the emissions reduction target). The European Parliament calls for increasing these targets. The European Commission by its communication from 2018 also opened a discussion about the target for emissions reduction for 2050. This paper also mentions the positions of the Committee on European Affairs of the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic.
Climate change, global worming, CO2 emissions, Energetic Union, Paris Agreement 10.02.2019 cz Document
Study_2.110_25 years of the Czech and Slovak economies
The study was prepared for the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the independent Czech Republic and Slovakia. The study analyses economic development of the countries based on economic indicators. It focuses mainly on macroeconomic indicators (GDP and inflation), labour market (unemployment, employment, and income), public budgets and monetary policy. It examines the convergence of the both economies and its pace.
Czechoslovakia division,economic comparison, The Czech Republic, The Slovak Republic, GDP, inflation, unemployment, exchange rate, monetary policy 10.01.2019 cz Document
Study_5.383_Cyberterrorism. The Essentials, Forms and Acts of Cyberterrorism, Cyber Safety, International Comparison
This research paper is devoted to the fundamentals of cyberterrorism and cyber safety. The first part describes the differences between cybercrime (as a concept of criminal law) and cyberterrorism or state-performed cyberattack with sufficient magnitude to constitute an act of war. Hybrid warfare is also discussed. Furthermore, this paper contains a list of the most frequently occurring types of cyberattacks and their manifestations through the recent past. The next part deals with the overview of cyber safety as a set of preventive and reactive measures against cyber events and incidents. In this context, the Czech Republic is ranked among the ten most prepared countries. For this reason, the Czech cyber security architecture is also more closely reflected in international comparison.
terorism, cybernetic, attack, incident, criminal law, legal status, overview, comparison, defensece, safety 10.01.2019 cz Document
Selected Topic_05/2019_Current Situation in Northern Syria
The idea of creating a "safe zone" in northern Syria in a wider context
Syria, Turkey, USA, Safe Zone 10.10.2019 cz Document
Study_1.238_Legal Regulation of Lobbying in Selected Countries
The purpose of this work is to describe an overview of the lobbying regulations in the countries that have adopted specialized lobbying legal regulation acts. To fulfil this purpose, the authors define and compare relevant legal terms such as the definition of lobbying, the definition of lobbyist and lobbied authorities, the register of lobbyists, the lobbying code of conduct, privileges and obligations for lobbyists and lobbied authorities in selected countries.
lobbying, legislative process, parliament, lobbyists retister 10.11.2019 cz Document
Study_5.389_The legal regulation of euthanasia and assisted suicide in European countries and some selected countries of the world - comparison
The objective of this paper is to bring up-to-date information on the legal regulation of euthanasia and assisted suicide in European countries and some selected countries of the world. The introductory part of the paper is supplemented with an overview of the basic case law of the European Court of Human Rights in this area. Moreover, the paper provides readers with available statistical data on reported cases of active euthanasia or assisted suicide in the countries under review. Furthermore, the paper presents a comparison of legislation concerning doctors and medical workers with a focus on their possibility to refuse to perform euthanasia or to assist patients in ending their lives. Part of the paper also deals with the question of whether third-country patients and their relatives can travel to the countries where this procedure is allowed to end their lives. The paper also presents an overview of the legislation in EU countries where there are privileged types of criminal offences in Penal Codes of killing on demand and participating in suicide, which allows punishing offenders by mild punishments. At the final part of this paper, the basic overview of information on the legal regulation of active euthanasia or assisted suicide in jurisdictions that have not been covered in detail in this paper is covered.
euthanasia, assisted suicide, doctor 10.10.2019 cz Document
Selected Topic_01/2020 Ban on preventing children from entry to restaurants and pubs
This research paper describes Czech law concerning limits to children free restaurants and pubs. In short, the establishment is prevented from banning children if it serves meals and it is opened during daytime. Conversely, pubs with no food available and opened during evenings only are possibly able to ban children. The paper also explains the logic of antidiscrimination law, including its origins in the US. There is a summary of current law regarding children-free restaurants in the US, Germany, UK and France.
discrimination;restaurant,children,age 10.01.2020 cz Document
Selected Topic_07/2019_General elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2018
The paper looks into the general elections at the state level in Bosnia and Herzegovina in October, 2018. Voters elected representatives of the lower House of Representatives of the state Parliamentary Assembly and also three members of the collective Head of State. After the general election, a lengthy process of government formation followed. Finally in December, 2019, the Parliamentary Assembly confirmed a new Prime Minister.
election; overview; Bosnia and Hercegovina 10.12.2019 cz Document
Selected Topic 06/2019_Political priorities in the area of migration and asylum: a new European Commission and Croatian Presidency in the first half of 2020
Political priorities in the area of migration and asylum: a new European Commission and Croatian Presidency in the first half of 2020 On 27 November 2019, the European Parliament's plenary approved a new European Commission, headed by Ursula von der Leyen, who in July, as a candidate for the post of President of the European Commission, presented political guidelines for the next European Commission, 2019-2024. From January 2020 onwards, at the Council level, Croatia will ensure the performance of the Presidency. In October 2019 Croatia presented the priorities of the Croatian Presidency's program. The direction of European migration policy basically follows the activities of the Juncker's European Commission. However, Ursula von der Leyen intends to submit a proposal for a New Pact for Migration and Asylum, which should address in particular the disagreements on the mandatory relocation mechanism in the Dublin Regulation. The design of this proposal is not yet known and should be presented in the first half of 2020. The V4 and Austria interior ministers consider such a proposal an excellent opportunity to reconsider existing policies, which should be based on consensus among all Member States without compulsory quotas or financial penalties.
migration;Ursula von der Leyen;European Commission; presidency; Croatia 10.12.2019 cz Document
Study_1.245_Ombudsman for Children
In the EU Member States, Iceland and Norway The Office of the Ombudsman for Children is an independent institution whose competence is the supervision of the state and other institutions in the field of childcare. Another function of children's ombudsmen is participation in the policy in the field of childcare. The function comprises also methodological and professional assistance to public authorities and governmental and nongovernmental agencies. The study identifies differences between EU countries in access to independent supervision of childcare, examines the powers of children's ombudsmen. The conclusion of the study summarizes the experience with the various types of ombudsmen.
ombudsman;Convention on the Rights of the Child; immigrants rights, cyberbullying 10.12.2019 cz Document
Study_5.390_Legal regulation of names and surnames in the selected EU countries
The study compares legal regulation of names and surnames in the selected EU countries. The countries were selected to represent stricter as well as less stringent and broader approach. The legal regulation of names and surnames in the Czech Republic is rather strict one. The study deals with the regulation of the name (first name) that parents can give to their child. Furthermore, it deals with the issue of gender neutral names. Although, in most of the countries, names are not conditioned by the gender. In general, children have surnames of their parents. In most of the countries, it is possible to give a child surname created from the combination of both of its parent’s surnames. In Slovenia and England, it is possible to give a child any surname parents want. The study also compares the legal regulation of the change of the surname after the marriage.
name; surname; birth name; double name; neutral name; surname after marriage 10.12.2019 cz Document
Study_5.391_Open data: Benefits, evaluation tools, basic regulatory information and subjects obligated to provide open data in selected countries
The paper focuses on the phenomenon of open data publishing, which is structured information gathered by public administration, which is published in a form that allows its further use by the population and the private sector. In the introductory part of the paper, the benefits of data opening and principles explaining how open data should look like is summarized. Moreover, the paper offers a comparison of the best-known indexes, which measure the use of open data published by public administration by country in the world. The second part of the paper presents a comparison of the situation in selected countries of the world, focusing on the identification of relevant legislation and entities that are obliged to provide open data. Among other things, the European Union legislation in this area is presented, which affects the legal environment throughout in all selected countries.
data; electronic form; information, innovation, online; transparency 10.01.2020 cz Document